Subject: Provide individual CPU usage measurement based on idle time
From: Carsten Emde <C.Emde@osadl.org>
Date: Fri,  4 Sep 2015 20:41:40 +0100

The various methods to determine CPU usage and load have a number of
disadvantages (see also Documentation/cpu-load.txt), and a
straight-forward method to gain usage information about a particular CPU
is lacking. However, in the context of setting CPU affinity and
isolation, it is often required to monitor the effective usage ratio of
a CPU.

This patch adds an additional CPU usage measuring method that is based
on idle time processing. The data are available for every CPU in
/proc/idleruntime/cpuN/data in the format "<idletime> <runtime>". The
counters can be reset by writing to /proc/idleruntime/cpuN/reset.

To calculate the per-core CPU usage since the most recent reset, divide
the runtime by the sum of runtime plus idletime, e.g.

# for i in `ls -1d /proc/idleruntime/cpu* | sort -nk1.22`
> do
>   echo "$i: `awk '{ print (100.0*$2) / ($1+$2)"%" }' <$i/data`"
>   echo 1 >$i/reset
> done
/proc/idleruntime/cpu0: 72.0048%
/proc/idleruntime/cpu1: 5.49522%
/proc/idleruntime/cpu2: 0.27916%
/proc/idleruntime/cpu3: 32.3493%

In addition, summed up data of all present CPUs are available in
/proc/idleruntime/all in the same format as above. Thus, to calculate
the overall CPU usage since the most recent reset, the following command
may be used:
awk '{ print (100.0*$2) / ($1+$2)"%" }' </proc/idleruntime/all/data

To reset the counters althogether write to /proc/idleruntime/all/reset.

Signed-off-by: Carsten Emde <C.Emde@osadl.org>

---
 init/Kconfig                   |   28 +++++
 kernel/sched/Makefile          |    1 
 kernel/sched/core.c            |   31 +++++
 kernel/sched/cpu_idleruntime.c |  225 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 kernel/sched/sched.h           |    8 +
 5 files changed, 293 insertions(+)

Index: linux-4.16.12-rt5/init/Kconfig
===================================================================
--- linux-4.16.12-rt5.orig/init/Kconfig
+++ linux-4.16.12-rt5/init/Kconfig
@@ -413,6 +413,34 @@ config BSD_PROCESS_ACCT_V3
          for processing it. A preliminary version of these tools is available
          at <http://www.gnu.org/software/acct/>.
 
+config CPU_IDLERUNTIME
+       bool "Provide individual CPU usage measurement based on idle processing"
+       help
+         If you say Y here, individual CPU usage data will be provided that are
+         based on idle processing. The data are available for every CPU and for
+         all present CPUs summed up in /proc/idleruntime/cpuN/data and
+         /proc/idleruntime/all/data, respectively, in the format
+         "<idletime> <runtime>". The counters can be reset by writing to
+         /proc/idleruntime/cpuN/reset separately for every CPU and to
+         /proc/idleruntime/all/reset for all present CPUs at once. To calculate
+         the CPU usage since the most recent reset, the runtime must be devided
+         by the sum of idletime plus runtime
+           awk '{print (100.0*$2) / ($1+$2)"%"}' </proc/idleruntime/cpu0/data
+         for every CPU or
+           awk '{print (100.0*$2) / ($1+$2)"%"}' </proc/idleruntime/all/data
+         for all CPUs altogether. The shell code snippet
+         # for i in `ls -1d /proc/idleruntime/cpu* | sort -nk1.22`
+         > do
+         >   echo "$i: `awk '{ print (100.0*$2) / ($1+$2)"%" }' <$i/data`"
+         >   echo 1 >$i/reset
+         > done
+         may produce
+         /proc/idleruntime/cpu0: 72.0048%
+         /proc/idleruntime/cpu1: 5.49522%
+         /proc/idleruntime/cpu2: 0.27916%
+         /proc/idleruntime/cpu3: 32.3493%
+         on a four-core processor.
+
 config TASKSTATS
        bool "Export task/process statistics through netlink"
        depends on NET
Index: linux-4.16.12-rt5/kernel/sched/Makefile
===================================================================
--- linux-4.16.12-rt5.orig/kernel/sched/Makefile
+++ linux-4.16.12-rt5/kernel/sched/Makefile
@@ -22,6 +22,7 @@ obj-y += wait.o wait_bit.o swait.o swork
 obj-$(CONFIG_SMP) += cpupri.o cpudeadline.o topology.o stop_task.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_SCHED_AUTOGROUP) += autogroup.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_SCHEDSTATS) += stats.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_CPU_IDLERUNTIME) += cpu_idleruntime.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_SCHED_DEBUG) += debug.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_CGROUP_CPUACCT) += cpuacct.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_CPU_FREQ) += cpufreq.o
Index: linux-4.16.12-rt5/kernel/sched/core.c
===================================================================
--- linux-4.16.12-rt5.orig/kernel/sched/core.c
+++ linux-4.16.12-rt5/kernel/sched/core.c
@@ -2739,6 +2739,37 @@ prepare_task_switch(struct rq *rq, struc
        fire_sched_out_preempt_notifiers(prev, next);
        prepare_task(next);
        prepare_arch_switch(next);
+#ifdef CONFIG_CPU_IDLERUNTIME
+       if (is_idle_task(next)) {
+               int cpu = raw_smp_processor_id();
+
+               if (per_cpu(idlestop, cpu)) {
+                       unsigned long flags;
+
+                       raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&per_cpu(idleruntime_lock, cpu),
+                           flags);
+                       per_cpu(idlestart, cpu) = cpu_clock(cpu);
+                       per_cpu(runtime, cpu) +=
+                           per_cpu(idlestart, cpu) - per_cpu(idlestop, cpu);
+                       raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&per_cpu(idleruntime_lock,
+                           cpu), flags);
+               }
+       } else if (is_idle_task(prev)) {
+               int cpu = raw_smp_processor_id();
+
+               if (per_cpu(idlestart, cpu)) {
+                       unsigned long flags;
+
+                       raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&per_cpu(idleruntime_lock, cpu),
+                           flags);
+                       per_cpu(idlestop, cpu) = cpu_clock(cpu);
+                       per_cpu(idletime, cpu) +=
+                           per_cpu(idlestop, cpu) - per_cpu(idlestart, cpu);
+                       raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&per_cpu(idleruntime_lock,
+                           cpu), flags);
+               }
+       }
+#endif
 }
 
 /**
Index: linux-4.16.12-rt5/kernel/sched/cpu_idleruntime.c
===================================================================
--- /dev/null
+++ linux-4.16.12-rt5/kernel/sched/cpu_idleruntime.c
@@ -0,0 +1,225 @@
+/*
+   cpu_idleruntime.c: provide CPU usage data based on idle processing
+
+   Copyright (C) 2012,2015 Carsten Emde <C.Emde@osadl.org>
+
+   This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
+   modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
+   as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
+   of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
+
+   This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+   GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+   You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+   along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
+   Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301  USA.
+*/
+
+#include <linux/seq_file.h>
+#include <linux/proc_fs.h>
+#include <linux/cpu.h>
+
+#include "sched.h"
+
+DEFINE_PER_CPU(unsigned long long, idlestart);
+DEFINE_PER_CPU(unsigned long long, idlestop);
+DEFINE_PER_CPU(unsigned long long, idletime);
+DEFINE_PER_CPU(unsigned long long, runtime);
+DEFINE_PER_CPU(raw_spinlock_t, idleruntime_lock);
+
+static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct proc_dir_entry *, idleruntime_dir);
+static struct proc_dir_entry *root_idleruntime_dir;
+
+static void idleruntime_get(unsigned long cpu, unsigned long long *cpuidletime,
+                           unsigned long long *cpuruntime)
+{
+       unsigned long long now;
+       unsigned long flags;
+
+       raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&per_cpu(idleruntime_lock, cpu), flags);
+
+       /* Update runtime counter */
+       now = cpu_clock(cpu);
+       if (is_idle_task(cpu_rq(cpu)->curr))
+               per_cpu(idletime, cpu) += now - per_cpu(idlestart, cpu);
+       else
+               per_cpu(runtime, cpu) += now - per_cpu(idlestop, cpu);
+
+       *cpuidletime = per_cpu(idletime, cpu);
+       *cpuruntime = per_cpu(runtime, cpu);
+
+       raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&per_cpu(idleruntime_lock, cpu), flags);
+
+}
+
+static void idleruntime_output(struct seq_file *m, unsigned long long idletime,
+                  unsigned long long runtime)
+{
+       seq_printf(m, "%llu %llu\n", idletime, runtime);
+}
+
+static int idleruntime_show(struct seq_file *m, void *v)
+{
+       unsigned long cpu = (unsigned long) m->private;
+       unsigned long long cpuidletime, cpuruntime;
+
+       idleruntime_get(cpu, &cpuidletime, &cpuruntime);
+       idleruntime_output(m, cpuidletime, cpuruntime);
+
+       return 0;
+}
+
+static int idleruntime_show_all(struct seq_file *m, void *v)
+{
+       unsigned long cpu;
+       unsigned long long total_idletime = 0ULL, total_runtime = 0ULL;
+
+       preempt_disable();
+
+       for_each_present_cpu(cpu) {
+               unsigned long long cpuidletime, cpuruntime;
+
+               idleruntime_get(cpu, &cpuidletime, &cpuruntime);
+               total_idletime += cpuidletime;
+               total_runtime += cpuruntime;
+       }
+
+       preempt_enable();
+
+       idleruntime_output(m, total_idletime, total_runtime);
+
+       return 0;
+}
+
+static inline void idleruntime_reset1(unsigned long cpu)
+{
+       unsigned long flags;
+
+       raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&per_cpu(idleruntime_lock, cpu), flags);
+       per_cpu(idletime, cpu) = per_cpu(runtime, cpu) = 0;
+       per_cpu(idlestart, cpu) =  per_cpu(idlestop, cpu) = cpu_clock(cpu);
+       raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&per_cpu(idleruntime_lock, cpu), flags);
+}
+
+static ssize_t idleruntime_reset(struct file *file, const char __user *buffer,
+                                size_t len, loff_t *offset)
+{
+       unsigned long cpu = (unsigned long) PDE_DATA(file_inode(file));
+
+       idleruntime_reset1(cpu);
+       return len;
+}
+
+static ssize_t idleruntime_reset_all(struct file *file,
+                                   const char __user *buffer,
+                                   size_t len, loff_t *offset)
+{
+       unsigned long cpu;
+
+       preempt_disable();
+
+       for_each_present_cpu(cpu)
+               idleruntime_reset1(cpu);
+
+       preempt_enable();
+
+       return len;
+}
+
+static int idleruntime_open_all(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
+{
+       return single_open(file, idleruntime_show_all, PDE_DATA(inode));
+}
+
+static const struct file_operations idleruntime_all_fops = {
+       .open = idleruntime_open_all,
+       .read = seq_read,
+       .llseek = seq_lseek,
+       .write = idleruntime_reset_all,
+       .release = single_release,
+};
+
+static int idleruntime_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
+{
+       return single_open(file, idleruntime_show, PDE_DATA(inode));
+}
+
+static const struct file_operations idleruntime_fops = {
+       .open = idleruntime_open,
+       .read = seq_read,
+       .llseek = seq_lseek,
+       .write = idleruntime_reset,
+       .release = single_release,
+};
+
+static int setup_procfiles(unsigned int cpu)
+{
+       char name[32];
+       struct proc_dir_entry *idleruntime_cpudir = NULL;
+
+       if (root_idleruntime_dir) {
+               snprintf(name, sizeof(name), "cpu%d", cpu);
+               idleruntime_cpudir = proc_mkdir(name, root_idleruntime_dir);
+       }
+
+       if (idleruntime_cpudir) {
+               proc_create_data("data", S_IRUGO, idleruntime_cpudir,
+                   &idleruntime_fops, (void *) (long) cpu);
+               proc_create_data("reset", S_IWUGO, idleruntime_cpudir,
+                   &idleruntime_fops, (void *) (long) cpu);
+       }
+       per_cpu(idleruntime_dir, cpu) = idleruntime_cpudir;
+
+       return 0;
+}
+
+static int unset_procfiles(unsigned int cpu)
+{
+       struct proc_dir_entry *idleruntime_cpudir =
+           per_cpu(idleruntime_dir, cpu);
+
+       if (idleruntime_cpudir) {
+               remove_proc_entry("reset", idleruntime_cpudir);
+               remove_proc_entry("data", idleruntime_cpudir);
+               proc_remove(idleruntime_cpudir);
+               per_cpu(idleruntime_dir, cpu) = NULL;
+       }
+
+       return 0;
+}
+
+static int __init idleruntime_init(void)
+{
+       root_idleruntime_dir = proc_mkdir("idleruntime", NULL);
+       if (root_idleruntime_dir) {
+               struct proc_dir_entry *idleruntime_alldir;
+               unsigned long cpu, cpus = 0;
+
+               for_each_possible_cpu(cpu) {
+                       per_cpu(idlestart, cpu) =  per_cpu(idlestop, cpu) =
+                           cpu_clock(cpu);
+                       raw_spin_lock_init(&per_cpu(idleruntime_lock, cpu));
+                       cpus++;
+               }
+
+               if (cpus > 1) {
+                       idleruntime_alldir = proc_mkdir("all",
+                           root_idleruntime_dir);
+                       proc_create_data("data", S_IRUGO, idleruntime_alldir,
+                           &idleruntime_all_fops, NULL);
+                       proc_create_data("reset", S_IWUGO, idleruntime_alldir,
+                           &idleruntime_all_fops, NULL);
+               }
+
+               cpuhp_setup_state(CPUHP_AP_ONLINE_DYN,
+                                 "idleruntime:online",
+                                 setup_procfiles,
+                                 unset_procfiles);
+       }
+       return 0;
+}
+
+early_initcall(idleruntime_init);
Index: linux-4.16.12-rt5/kernel/sched/sched.h
===================================================================
--- linux-4.16.12-rt5.orig/kernel/sched/sched.h
+++ linux-4.16.12-rt5/kernel/sched/sched.h
@@ -987,6 +987,14 @@ static inline void rq_repin_lock(struct
 #endif
 }
 
+#ifdef CONFIG_CPU_IDLERUNTIME
+extern DEFINE_PER_CPU(unsigned long long, idlestart);
+extern DEFINE_PER_CPU(unsigned long long, idlestop);
+extern DEFINE_PER_CPU(unsigned long long, idletime);
+extern DEFINE_PER_CPU(unsigned long long, runtime);
+extern DEFINE_PER_CPU(raw_spinlock_t, idleruntime_lock);
+#endif
+
 #ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
 enum numa_topology_type {
        NUMA_DIRECT,